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THE WORLD ANTI-DOPING CODE

INTERNATIONALSTANDARD

PROHIBITED LIST

JANUARY 2018
The official text of the Prohibited List shall be maintained by WADA and shall be published in English and French.
In the event of any conflict between the English and French versions, the English version shall prevail.
This List shall come into effect on 1 January 2018
IN ACCORDANCE WITH ARTICLE 4.2.2 OF THE WORLD ANTI-DOPING CODE, ALL

PROHIBITED SUBSTANCES SHALL
BE CONSIDERED AS “SPECIFIED SUBSTANCES” EXCEPT SUBSTANCES IN CLASSES S1, S2, S4.4, S4.5, S6.A, AND
PROHIBITED METHODS M1, M2 AND M3.

PROHIBITED SUBSTANCES

SUBSTANCES & METHODS

PROHIBITED AT ALL TIMES

(IN- AND OUT-OF-COMPETITION)

NON-APPROVED SUBSTANCES
Any pharmacological substance which is not
addressed by any of the subsequent sections of the

List
-and with no current approval by any governmental
regulatory health authority for human therapeutic use
(e.g.-drugs under pre-clinical or clinical development
or-discontinued, designer drugs, substances approved
only-for veterinary use) is prohibited at all times.

ANABOLIC AGENTS
Anabolic agents are prohibited.

1. ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS (AAS)
a. Exogenous* AAS, including:

1-A

ndrostenediol (5

α-androst-1-ene-3β,17β-diol);

1-Androstenedione (5

α-androst-1-ene-3,17-dione);

1-Androsterone (3

α-hydroxy-5α-androst-1-ene-17-one);

1-Testosterone (17

β-hydroxy-5α-androst-1-en-3-one);

4-H

ydroxytestosterone (4,17

β-dihydroxyandrost-4-en-3-

one);

olandiol (estr-4-ene-3

β,17β-diol);

Bolasterone;

Calusterone;

lostebol;
Danazol ([1,2xazolo[4',5':2,3]pregna-4-en-20-yn-17

α-ol);
Dehydrochlormethyltestosterone (4-chloro-17

β-hydroxy-

α-methylandrosta-1,4-dien-3-one);

Desoxymethyltestosterone (17

α-methyl-5α-androst-

2-en-17

β-ol);

Drostanolone;

Ethylestrenol (19-norpregna-4-en-17

α-ol);

Fluoxymesterone;

Formebolone;

Furazabol (17
α-methyl [1,2,5xadiazolo[3',4':2,3]-5α-

androstan-17

β-ol);

Gestrinone;

Mestanolone;

Mesterolone;

Metandienone (17
β-hydroxy-17α-methylandrosta-1,4-dien-

3-one);

Metenolone;

Methandriol;

Methasterone (17

β-hydroxy-2α,17α-dimethyl-5α-

androstan-3-one);

Methyldienolone (17

β-hydroxy-17α-methylestra-4,9-dien-

3-one);

Methyl-1-testosterone (17

β-hydroxy-17α-methyl-5α-

androst-1-en-3-one);

Methylnortestosterone (17

β-hydroxy-17α-methylestr-4-en-

3-one);

Methyltestosterone;

Metribolone (methyltrienolone, 17

β-hydroxy-17α-

methylestra-4,9,11-trien-3-one);

Mibolerone;

Norboletone;

Norclostebol;

Norethandrolone;

Oxabolone;

Oxandrolone;

Oxymesterone;

Oxymetholone;

Prostanozol (17

β-[(tetrahydropyran-2-yl)oxy

pyrazolo[3,4:2,3

α-androstane);

Quinbolone;

Stanozolol;

Stenbolone;
Tetrahydrogestrinone (17-hydroxy-18a-homo-19-nor-17

α-

pregna-4,9,11-trien-3-one);

Trenbolone (17

β-hydroxyestr-4,9,11-trien-3-one);
and other substances with a similar chemical structure
or-similar biological effect(s).
b. Endogenous** AAS when administered exogenously:

19-N
orandrostenediol (estr-4-ene-3,17-diol);
19-Norandrostenedione (estr-4-ene-3,17-dione);

ndrostanolone (5
α-dihydrotestosterone, 17β-hydroxy-5α-

androstan-3-one);

Androstenediol (androst-5-ene-3

β,17β-diol);
Androstenedione (androst-4-ene-3,17-dione);

oldenone;
Boldione (androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione);

androlone (19-nortestosterone);
rasterone (dehydroepiandrosterone, DHEA,

β-hydroxyandrost-5-en-17-one);

estosterone;
and their metabolites and isomers, including but
not-limited to:

β-Hydroxy-5α-androstan-17-one;

α-Androst-2-ene-17-one;

α-Androstane-3α,17α-diol;

α-Androstane-3α,17β-diol;

α-Androstane-3β,17α-diol;

α-Androstane-3β,17β-diol;

β-Androstane-3α,17β-diol;

α-Hydroxy-DHEA;

β-Hydroxy-DHEA;

4-A

ndrostenediol (androst-4-ene-3

β, 17β-diol);
5-Androstenedione (androst-5-ene-3,17-dione);

7-Keto-DHEA;

19-Norandrosterone;

19-Noretiocholanolone;

Androst-4-ene-3

α,17α-diol;

Androst-4-ene-3

α,17β-diol;

Androst-4-ene-3

β,17α-diol;

Androst-5-ene-3

α,17α-diol;

Androst-5-ene-3

α,17β-diol;

Androst-5-ene-3

β,17α-diol;

Androsterone;

Epi-dihydrotestosterone;

Epitestosterone;
tiocholanolone.

2. OTHER ANABOLIC AGENTS
Including, but not limited to:
Clenbuterol, selective androgen receptor modulators
(SARMs, e.g. andarine, LGD-4033, ostarine and RAD140),
tibolone, zeranol and zilpaterol.
For purposes of this section:
“ exogenous” refers to a substance which is not ordinarily produced by the body naturally.
“ endogenous” refers to a substance which is ordinarily produced by the body naturally.

PEPTIDE HORMONES, GROWTH FACTORS,

RELATED SUBSTANCES, AND MIMETICS
The following substances, and other substances with
similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s),
are prohibited:
Erythropoietins (EPO) and agents affecting erythropoiesis,
including, but not limited to:
Erythropoietin-Receptor Agonists, e.g.

Darbepoetins (dEPO);

Erythropoietins (EPO);
EPO based constructs [EPO-Fc, methoxy polyethylene

glycol-epoetin beta (CERA)

EPO-mimetic agents and their constructs
(e.g. CNTO-530, peginesatide).

Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) activating agents, e.g. Argon;

Cobalt;

Molidustat;

Roxadustat (FG-4592);

Xenon.

GATA inhibitors, e.g. K-11706.

TGF-beta (TGF-
β) inhibitors, e.g.

Luspatercept;

Sotatercept.

Innate repair receptor agonists, e.g.

Asialo EPO;

Carbamylated EPO (CEPO).
Peptide Hormones and Hormone Modulators,

Chorionic Gonadotrophin (CG) and Luteinizing Hormone (LH) and their releasing factors, e.g.
Buserelin, deslorelin, gonadorelin, goserelin,
leuprorelin, nafarelin and triptorelin, in males;

Corticotrophins and their releasing factors, e.g.

Corticorelin;

Growth Hormone (GH), its fragments and releasing factors, including, but not limited to:
Growth Hormone fragments, e.g.

AOD-9604 and hGH 176-191;

Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GHRH) and
its-analogues, e.g.

CJC-1293, CJC-1295, sermorelin and tesamorelin;

Growth Hormone Secretagogues (GHS), e.g.

ghrelin and ghrelin mimetics, e.g.

anamorelin, ipamorelin and tabimorelin;

GH-Releasing Peptides (GHRPs), e.g.

alexamorelin, GHRP-1, GHRP-2 (pralmorelin),
GHRP-3, GHRP-4, GHRP-5, GHRP-6, and hexarelin.

Growth Factors and Growth Factor Modulators, including, but not limited to:

ibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs);

epatocyte Growth Factor (HGF);
nsulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) and its analogues;

echano Growth Factors (MGFs);

latelet-Derived Growth Factor (PDGF);

hymosin-

β4 and its derivatives e.g. TB-500;
ascular-Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF).
Additional growth factors or growth factor modulators
affecting muscle, tendon or ligament protein synthesis/
degradation, vascularisation, energy utilization,
regenerative capacity or fibre type switching.

BETA-2 AGONISTS
All selective and non-selective beta-2 agonists,
including all optical isomers, are prohibited.
Including, but not limited to:

enoterol;

Formoterol;

igenamine;

ndacaterol;

lodaterol;

rocaterol;

eproterol;

albutamol;

Salmeterol;

erbutaline;

Tulobuterol;
ilanterol.
Except:
Inhaled salbutamol: maximum 1600 micrograms over
24-hours in divided doses not to exceed 800 micrograms

over 12 hours starting from any dose;
Inhaled formoterol: maximum delivered dose of

54-micrograms over 24 hours;
Inhaled salmeterol: maximum 200 micrograms over 24-hours.
The presence in urine of salbutamol in excess of 1000 ng/mL
or formoterol in excess of 40 ng/mL is not consistent with
therapeutic use of the substance and will be considered as an

Adverse Analytical Finding

(AAF) unless the Athlete proves,
through a controlled pharmacokinetic study, that the
abnormal result was the consequence of a therapeutic dose
(by inhalation) up to the maximum dose indicated above.

HORMONE AND METABOLIC

MODULATORS
The following hormone and metabolic modulators
are-prohibited:
Aromatase inhibitors including, but not limited to:

4-A

ndrostene-3,6,17 trione (6-oxo);

Aminoglutethimide;

Anastrozole;
Androsta-1,4,6-triene-3,17-dione (androstatrienedione);
Androsta-3,5-diene-7,17-dione (arimistane);

xemestane;

ormestane;

etrozole;
estolactone.
Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs)
including, but not limited to:

aloxifene;

amoxifen;
Toremifene.
Other anti-estrogenic substances including, but not limited to:

lomifene;

Cyclofenil;
ulvestrant.
Agents modifying myostatin function(s) including, but
not limited, to: myostatin inhibitors.
Metabolic modulators: 5.1 Activators of the AMP-activated protein kinase
(AMPK), e.g. AICAR, SR9009; and Peroxisome

Proliferator Activated Receptor

δ (PPARδ) agonists,
e.g. 2-(2-methyl-4-((4-methyl-2-(4-(trifluoromethyl)
phenyl)thiazol-5-yl)methylthio)phenoxy) acetic acid

(GW1516, GW501516);

Insulins and insulin-mimetics;

Meldonium;
Trimetazidine.

DIURETICS AND MASKING AGENTS
The following diuretics and masking agents are
prohibited, as are other substances with a similar chemical
structure or similar biological effect(s).
Including, but not limited to:
Desmopressin; probenecid; plasma expanders,
e.g.-intravenous administration of albumin, dextran,
hydroxyethyl starch and mannitol.
Acetazolamide; amiloride; bumetanide; canrenone;
chlortalidone; etacrynic acid; furosemide; indapamide;
metolazone; spironolactone; thiazides, e.g. bendroflu
methiazide, chlorothiazide and hydrochlorothiazide;
triamterene and vaptans, e.g. tolvaptan.

Except
Drospirenone; pamabrom; and ophthalmic use of
carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (e.g. dorzolamide,

brinzolamide);
Local administration of felypressin in dental
anaesthesia.

The detection in an

Athlete’s Sample

at all times or

In-Competition

, as applicable, of any quantity of
the following substances subject to threshold
limits: formoterol, salbutamol, cathine, ephedrine,
methylephedrine and pseudoephedrine, in conjunction
with a diuretic or masking agent, will be considered as

an-

Adverse Analytical Finding (AAF)

unless the

Athlete

has-an approved

Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE)

for
that-substance in addition to the one granted for the
diuretic or masking agent.

PROHIBITED METHODS

MANIPULATION OF BLOOD AND

BLOOD COMPONENTS
The following are prohibited:
The Administration or reintroduction of any quantity of
autologous, allogenic (homologous) or heterologous
blood, or red blood cell products of any origin into the
circulatory system.
Artificially enhancing the uptake, transport or delivery
of-oxygen.
Including, but not limited to:
Perfluorochemicals; efaproxiral (RSR13) and modified
haemoglobin products, e.g. haemoglobin-based blood
substitutes and microencapsulated haemoglobin
products, excluding supplemental oxygen by inhalation.
Any form of intravascular manipulation of the blood or blood components by physical or chemical means.

CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL

MANIPULATION
The following are prohibited:

Tampering

, or

Attempting to Tamper

, to alter the

integrity and validity of

Samples

collected during

Doping Control
Including, but not limited to:
Urine substitution and/or adulteration, e.g. proteases.
Intravenous infusions and/or injections of more than a-total of 100 mL per 12 hour period except for those
legitimately received in the course of hospital
treatments, surgical procedures or clinical diagnostic
investigations.

GENE DOPING
The following, with the potential to enhance sport
performance, are prohibited:
The use of polymers of nucleic acids or nucleic acid
analogues.
The use of gene editing agents designed to alter genome
sequences and/or the transcriptional or epigenetic
regulation of gene expression.
The use of normal or genetically modified cells.
IN ADDITION TO THE CATEGORIES S0 TO S5 AND M1 TO M3 DEFINED ABOVE, THE FOLLOWING CATEGORIES

ARE PROHIBITED
IN-COMPETITION:

SUBSTANCES & METHODS

PROHIBITED

IN-COMPETITION

PROHIBITED SUBSTANCES

STIMULANTS
All stimulants, including all optical isomers, e.g.

d- and l- where relevant, are prohibited.
Stimulants include:
a: Non-Specified Stimulants:

drafinil;

Amfepramone;

Amfetamine;

Amfetaminil;

Amiphenazole;

enfluorex;

Benzylpiperazine;

Bromantan;

lobenzorex;

Cocaine;

Cropropamide;

Crotetamide;

encamine;

Fenetylline;

Fenfluramine;

Fenproporex;
Fonturacetam [4-phenylpiracetam (carphedon)

Furfenorex;

isdexamfetamine;

efenorex;

Mephentermine;

Mesocarb;

Metamfetamine(

p-methylamphetamine;

Modafinil;

orfenfluramine;

hendimetrazine;

Phentermine;

Prenylamine;
Prolintane.
A stimulant not expressly listed in this section

is a

Specified Substance
b: Specified Stimulants.
Including, but not limited to:

1,3-D

imethylbutylamine;

4-M

ethylhexan-2-amine (methylhexaneamine);

enzfetamine;

athine**;
Cathinone and its analogues, e.g. mephedrone,

methedrone, and

α - pyrrolidinovalerophenone;

imethylamphetamine;

Ephedrine***;

Epinephrine**** (adrenaline);

Etamivan;

Etilamfetamine;

Etilefrine;

amprofazone;

Fenbutrazate;

Fencamfamin;

eptaminol;
Hydroxyamfetamine (parahydroxyamphetamine);

sometheptene;

evmetamfetamine;

eclofenoxate;

Methylenedioxymethamphetamine;

Methylephedrine***;

Methylphenidate;

ikethamide;

Norfenefrine;

ctopamine;

Oxilofrine (methylsynephrine);

Pemoline;

Pentetrazol;

Phenethylamine and its derivatives;

Phenmetrazine;

Phenpromethamine;

Propylhexedrine;

Pseudoephedrine*****;

elegiline;

Sibutramine;

Strychnine;
enamfetamine (methylenedioxyamphetamine);

Tuaminoheptane;
and other substances with a similar chemical structure
or-similar biological effect(s).
Except:

Clonidine;
Imidazole derivatives for topical/ophthalmic use
and-those stimulants included in the 2018
Monitoring-Program*.
Bupropion, caffeine, nicotine, phenylephrine,
phenylpropanolamine, pipradrol, and synephrine: These
substances are included in the 2018 Monitoring Program, and

are not considered

Prohibited Substances
Cathine: Prohibited when its concentration in urine is greater than 5 micrograms per milliliter.

***
Ephedrine and methylephedrine: Prohibited when the concentration of either in urine is greater than 10 micrograms per milliliter.

****
Epinephrine (adrenaline): Not prohibited in local administration, e.g. nasal, ophthalmologic, or co-administration with local anaesthetic agents.

*****
Pseudoephedrine: Prohibited when its concentration in urine is-greater than 150 micrograms per milliliter.

NARCOTICS
The following narcotics are prohibited:

uprenorphine;

Dextromoramide;

Diamorphine (heroin);

Fentanyl and its derivatives;

Hydromorphone;

Methadone;

Morphine;

Nicomorphine;

Oxycodone;

Oxymorphone;

Pentazocine;
Pethidine.

CANNABINOIDS
The following cannabinoids are prohibited:
Natural cannabinoids, e.g. cannabis, hashish and marijuana,
Synthetic cannabinoids e.g. 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and other cannabimimetics.
Except:
Cannabidiol.

GLUCOCORTICOIDS
All glucocorticoids are prohibited when administered
by oral, intravenous, intramuscular or rectal routes.
Including but not limited to:

etamethasone;

Budesonide;

ortisone;

eflazacort;

Dexamethasone;

luticasone;

ydrocortisone;

ethylprednisolone;

rednisolone;

Prednisone;
riamcinolone.

SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED

IN PARTICULAR SPORTS

BETA-BLOCKERS

Beta-blockers are prohibited

In-Competition

only, in
the following sports, and also prohibited

Out-of-Competition
where indicated.

Archery (WA)*

Automobile (FIA)

Billiards (all disciplines) (WCBS)

Darts (WDF)

Golf (IGF)

Shooting (ISSF, IPC)*
Skiing/Snowboarding (FIS) in ski jumping, freestyle
aerials/halfpipe and snowboard halfpipe/big air
Underwater sports (CMAS) in constant-weight apnoea with or without fins, dynamic apnoea with and without
fins, free immersion apnoea, Jump Blue apnoea,
spearfishing, static apnoea, target shooting, and variable
weight apnoea.

*Also prohibited

Out-of-Competition
Including, but not limited to:

cebutolol;Labetalol;

Alprenolol;Levobunolol;

Atenolol;Metipranolol;

etaxolol;Metoprolol;

Bisoprolol;Nadolol;

Bunolol;Oxprenolol;

arteolol;Pindolol;

Carvedilol;Propranolol;

Celiprolol;Sotalol;
smolol;Timolol.

www.wada-ama.org


prohibited list 2018 en

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